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Oreshek Fortress

Oreshek is situated on the small Orekhovy Island in the River Neva's outflow from Lake Ladoga.


1323 Prince Yury Danilovich of Moscow, a grandson of Alexander Nevsky, built the wooden Oreshek Fortress to protect Rus’ north-western borders and trade routes to Western Europe.

1323 A peace treaty was signed between Novgorod the Great and Sweden.

1348 The fortress was captured by the Swedes.

1349 The wooden fortress was destroyed by fire during the Novgorodians’ battle against the Swedes.

1352 A stone fortress was built by Archbishop Vasily of Novgorod.

Late 15th– early 16th century The 1352 fortress was dismantled and a new stone fortress with seven towers.

1612 The Swedes captured the fortress after 9 months’ siege and renamed it Nöteborg (Nut City).

1686–1697 Korolevskaya Tower was rebuilt to the design of Swedish fortification engineer Erik Dahlbergh.

1702 The fortress of Nöteborg was besieged by Russian troops under the command of Peter I and Field-Marshal B.P. Sheremetyev. Nöteborg is renamed Shlisselburg (Key City).

1716–1728 Soldier barracks were built to the design by architects I.G. Ustinov and D. Trezzini.

1716 A mint was built to the design by architect I.G. Ustinov. Upon completion of construction, the building was used as a storage facility.

1718 A.D. Menshikov’s wooden house was built to the design by architect I.G. Ustinov.

1722 Peter I’s wooden palace was built.

1798 The first prison building known as the Secret House was constructed to the design by architect P. Paton. Its prisoners included Decembrists I.I. Puschin, V.K. Küchelbecker and others.

1907–1908 The Old Prison was reconstructed into a two-storey building with 12 shared cells .

1911 Building No. 4 designed for 500 prisoners was built. About 1000 people could be kept in confinement in the fortress at a time.

1917 All prisoners were freed.

1918–1939 A border-guard garrison was stationed in the fortress.

1925 The government decided to take the fortress under protection because of its “historical significance”.

1928 A museum was opened as a branch of the Leningrad Museum of the October Revolution.

1941–1943 Oreshek Fortress was defended by a garrison of 350 men. The German artillery fire damaged the fortress walls and towers and destroyed all buildings.

1940s–1960s After World War Two, the half-destroyed Shlisselburg fortress, not yet a museum, was protected as a historical monument. Restoration works were performed and the fortress became a tourist attraction.

1965 A museum was opened in Oreshek Fortress.

1968–1973 Archeological excavations were carried out under the guidance of Doctor of Historical Sciences A.N. Kirpichnikov and V.I. Kildyushevsky.

1984–1985 A historical exhibition in the Old Prison building and a memorial complex dedicated to Oreshek’s defenders during World War Two were opened.

2002 A memorial sign dedicated to the Oreshek Treaty of 1323 was opened.

Contact information and driving instructions

Address: Oreshek Fortress, Orekhovy Island, Shlisselburg, Kirovsk District, Leningrad Oblast, 187320
Tel.: +7 (812) 498-06-79, +7 (812) 498-05-11; +7 921-951-91-32 — to request a tour

City of Shlisselburg
Link: http://shlisselburg.com/